Return to Ancestral Homeland: as shown by DNA studies.
This Y Haplogroups world map shows that Malays of the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, as well as the Han Chinese of South China, who all share the dominant Y-DNA Haplogroup ‘O’, are actually blood-brothers.
This Y Haplogroup map, as the results of massive DNA sampling exercise from participating male population of the various countries and regions of the world, is about Y-chromosome (Y-DNA), inherited exclusively from father to son in an unaltered fashion for many generations, which allow geneticists to identify very old lineages and ancient ethnicities.
Another map below depicts Y-DNA of Haplogroup ‘O’ only to show clearly Malay lineage and Homeland in South-East Asia and Malay migration (perhaps originating from the Philippines by sea) that extends deep into Asian Continent, including Taiwan, Japan and Korea, islands of the Pacifics, and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean.
Apparently, the Han Chinese community in South China were immigrants, whose ancestors once lived in the Malay Archipelago. And that these Han Chinese arrivals in the 19th and 20th century into Singapore and Malaysia were actually a return to an ancestral homeland that had been long abandoned.
Now the Malaysian and Singaporean Chinese, or rather Chinese Malay, so to speak, may have the uphill task to learn to live with descendents of their Malay ancestors who had long been forgotten, and to relearn the ancestral Malay language and culture to be accepted as long lost relatives of the Malays.
My great grandmother, a Han Chinese, who came from Guangdong China to Malaysia to then converted to Islam and married to a Javanese from Indonesia to start a big family here, may well be the case of balik kampung (return to the homeland)!
Whilst Another Y-DNA Haplogroup map that comes with lineage frequency table provides the more detailed analysis of 28 selected population groups as follows:
To simplify lineage comparisons, I have replaced the haplogroup codes with country names that show the highest lineage frequency of that particular Y-DNA haplogroup, and ranked them accordingly to produce following interesting results:
Tongan – 60% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 23% Cook Islander, 10% Solomon Islander, 8% Western New Guinea Lowlander
It is established that Taiwanese Aborigines carry 100% Haplogroup O(M175), Cook Islanders carry 83.3% Haplogroup C(M130), Solomon Islanders (Malaita Province) carry 66.7% Haplogroup K(M9*), and Western New Guinea Lowlanders carry 77.5% Haplogroup M(M4/M106).
Meanwhile, the fact that Chinese is ranked #4 behind Taiwanese, Vietnamese and Javanese, for instance, indicates there was a back-migration earlier to China from South East Asia. Otherwise how come Chinese carry with them traces of lineages similar to the general characteristics of South East Asians in respect of Solomon Islander and/or Cook Islander, apart from Taiwanese Aborigines.
‘Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated With Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands’, By MURRAY P. COX* AND MARTA MIRAZON LAHR, Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 18:35–50 (2006)
‘DNA suggests China Chinese originated from Southeast Asia’, By Farhan Ali (2009)
‘Haplogroup O (Y-DNA)’, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia